beautiful... animal Tiger (megapost)


El tigre:



The Tiger (Panthera tigris) is one of six species of the subfamily of the panterinos (family Felidae) belonging to the genus Panthera. It is only in the Asian continent; It is a carnivorous predator and is the species of feline, largest in the world, can achieve a comparable fossil felids of larger size.
There are six subspecies of Tiger, of which Bengal is the largest; his examples constitute about 80% of the total population of the species; It is located in the India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma and Nepal. It is an endangered species, and today, most of the Tigers in the world live in captivity. The Tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh and the India.
It is a territorial and solitary animal that usually inhabit dense forests, but also open areas, such as savannas. Normally, the Tiger hunts medium or large size animals, usually hoofed animals. In the six different existing subspecies of Tiger, there are very significant variation of the size. Male Tigers are much larger than the females. Similarly, the territory of a male usually covers one area larger than a female.


Description:



The Tiger is feline in the world, comparable in size with the large feline fossils. The size of the Tigers and other features vary from a subspecies to another. In the wild, Tigers males have a weight ranging between 100 and 360 kg and a length of 220-380 cm including the tail, which measures between 60 and 110 cm and 70 to 122 cm in height to the cross. Meanwhile, females, much smaller, have a weight of 85 - 167 kg. and a total length of 210-275 cm. Currently, the smallest subspecies is the Sumatran tiger, while the larger are the Amur tiger and the Tiger of Bengal.
Most Tigers have orange fur or fawn, stripes and whitish intermediate, ventral area range in tone from dark brown to black. The form and amount of the stripes vary according to sex (if it is a female the amount of stripes is lower), although most of the Tigers usually have less than 100 stripes. The pattern of stripes is unique in each copy and can use this to identify an individual, in the same way that fingerprints are used to identify a person. However, due to how difficult it is to register the pattern of stripes in a wild tiger, this is not the method used for the identification of a tiger. Probably, the function of stripes is camouflage, being useful to hide from potential prey. The pattern of stripes is also found in the skin of the Tiger, so, if it's shaved, their distinctive stripes can be observed.
Like most cats, it is believed that tigers have some color vision. On the other hand, their night vision is very acute thanks to the mirror membrane located in the retina, which focuses the low-light of the night.
Like other members of its genus, the Tiger has the ability to roar. Unlike other cats, although reminiscent of the jaguar, the Tiger is an excellent swimmer; You can surprise and hunt prey in the water.




Territory:



Adult Tigers tend to be fiercely territorial and hunt much. The tigresas may have a territory of 20 km², while the territory of males is much more extensive, covering an average area of 80 km²; However, the size of the territory depends on different populations of the Tiger, being more large territories belonging to the Tigers of Southeast Russia than any other subspecies of Tiger. Male Tigers can allow the entry of several females to their territory, to the point of sharing a dam and even feed after the female (in the case of the lion, opposite exactly, because the dominant male is the first feed); but do not tolerate the entry of other Tigers males in its territory. Due to its aggressive nature, territorial conflicts between Tigers are violent and may end with the death of one of the males, although these deaths are less frequent from what is believed, because in the struggles for the territory most males end up virtually unscathed. To mark its territory the male sprays urine or other secretions on the trees.
There are several techniques to study the tiger in the wild; a few years ago the populations of tigers were calculated by of plaster casts taken from their tracks. Currently the radio transmitter collar has become a very popular tool for the study of the tiger in the wild.

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A female is receptive only for a few days, and the mating may occur several times during this time. Gestation lasts approximately 103 days, and after this period, the female gives birth to six litters of less than a kilogram of weight.
Adult males can kill offspring to the receptive females.
To meet the eight weeks of age, hatchlings are ready to get out of his Lair and follow his mother. The young become independent at about 18 months of age, but until an approximate age of two years and two years and a half are not permanently separated from his mother. The Tigers reach sexual maturity at three or four years old. Young tigresas generally establishes its territory very close to his mother, while males tend to wander in search of a territory, which normally acquired through struggles with the male owner of some territory. The tigresas tend to give birth to a similar number of females and males throughout his life.
The Tigers are well bred in zoos or conservation elsewhere, and in United States, the population of tigers in captivity is only as large as the total number of tigers in the wild.

Diet:



In freedom, the Tigers eat especially hoofed large, although, like many other predators, the Tigers are opportunistic and not despise small prey, such as monkeys, peacocks, hares and even fish. In Siberia the main prey of the Tiger are the elk, wild boar, roe deer and shika deer, musk deer, while on the island of Sumatra, Timor deer, wild boar and the Malayan tapir are dams preyed upon frequently by the Sumatran tiger. They are also capable of hunting large herbivores, such as gaures, water buffalo and elk.
Occasionally, can kill other large predators, such as dogs, leopards, pythons, or bears. Even cases of tigers that have hunted adult crocodiles, although it's rare cases are known, and both predators avoid found. Amur Tigers and brown bears are a mutual threat and both tend to be avoided. However, statistics indicate that the Tiger is the winner more often in the battles between both animals as bears hunted by the Tigers tend to be young or female, considerably smaller than the male bears.
An adult tigress is capable of killing an adult gaur alone, despite having one weight less than one sixth of the total weight of the adult gaur.
Sambar and wild boar are the most frequent prey for the tiger in the India; elephants and young rhinos are hunted by the Tigers occasionally, most of the time when they are unprotected by their herds. Even referred to a case in which a tiger hunted to an adult female of Indian Rhinoceros. Adult elephants are too dangerous animals to be a prey commonly hunted by Tiger.
The Tigers prefer to hunt prey major like sambar, the gaur or buffalo water, that they provide more meat for what lasts several days, avoiding the need for another fighter. In all their populations, the Tiger is the maximum predator and does not compete with other carnivores, with the exception of bears that exceed you in size and weight, and the Asian wild dog, which compensates for its lack of force with the number. A desperate and hungry Tiger can attack anything that it considers potential food.

Methods of hunting:



Normally the Tigers seek to hunt large herbivores; Examples include sambar deer, wild pigs, gaures, water buffalo and domestic cattle. We know that the old or injured Tigers are more likely to attack domestic livestock or humans; These Tigers are called commonly "Tigers attacked men," what leads often to these cats to be terribly removed by man. It is known that in the swamps of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and the Indian State of Bengal, which is where they occur further incidents such as those mentioned, many healthy Tigers and in perfect conditions they have sought to attack human beings; This is largely due to the enormous human population density in such regions, which leads to a superposition of hunting grounds of the Tigers and the territories inhabited by humans.



The Tiger used his size and strength to hit its possible prey and bring her down. Despite its large size, the Tigers can reach speeds of up to 90 km/h (the Amur Tigers are able to reach this speed in a short career on the Siberian snow). Considered that the roar of the Tiger also plays an important role at the time of starting the attack; such ROAR contains, in addition to sound waves of visible range, inaudible infrasound waves for the human but with horrifying and paralyzing effects [citation needed]; also use their muscles to sustain and bring down their prey, especially if it is large, like a gaur. Once the animal is in soil, the Tiger bites the back of the neck, often breaking the spinal cord, or drilling the trachea, giving their prey almost immediate death.

Adult Tigers are able to make leaps of up to 5 meters in height, or 9 or 10 m in length, making him one of the mammals that highest can jump (only behind the puma on the jumping ability).

The claws of the Tiger (usually measured around 7.5 cm long), combined with the strength that can be used to hit, do kill a ruminant adult with a coup only.


Risk of extinction:

Currently, the greatest enemy to the Tiger is the human being.
The bones, and virtually all parts of the body of the Tiger have been used in traditional oriental medicine, although nowadays this practice has been banned in China.
Poaching for the obtaining of the skin and the destruction of their Habitat have reduced considerably the wild population of the Tiger.It is estimated that in the early 20th century there were around 100,000 tigers in the wild, distributed from the Anatolian peninsula to the island of Bali, while recently estimated that the wild tiger population consists of little more than 3,000 copies, while in captivity, it is estimated that there are approximately 20,000.





subspecies:


Nine subspecies of tiger lived in Asia in recent times, of which three are extinct and another is in great danger of extinction in the not too distant future. Its historical range (very small now) mainly went through Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, China and Southeast Asia, including Indonesia Islands. The following are the surviving subspecies of the Tiger, in order of wild population:


Bengal tiger.
The Bengal tiger, also known as Royal Bengal tiger or Tiger (p. t. tigris), is located in the India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma. It can be found in locations varied from rain forests to savannas. The Indian Government estimates that the total population of the Bengal tiger could be around 2,000 wild specimens, of which about 170612 would be found in the India.En 1972, the India launched the project Tiger, in order to protect the population of the tiger in India. The project resulted for a time, because it increased the population of the Tiger of Bengal of 1,200 copies in the 1970s to more than 3,000 in the early 1990s, and is considered one of the most successful projects for the conservation of wildlife. However, even when this subspecies of Tiger is the largest, and still under severe threat of being exterminated, since the destruction of their Habitat and poaching (who have turned to rise due to the loss of effectiveness of the project) have caused that in recent years, this tiger population has declined considerably. The Tiger is one of the subspecies of greater size, with a weight of 175-260 kg in the case of males and 100-160 kg in females. However, the Tigers that live in Nepal and Northern India, tend to have a larger size than the of those who inhabit the center of the Indian subcontinent and the Sundarbans.


Indochinese Tiger.
The Indochina Tiger, also called Corbett Tiger (p. t. corbetti), found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Burma, Thailand and Viet Nam. Estimates of the total population in the wild are variable, so it is not known with certainty what their exact number, although it is believed that you can currently be between 700 and 1,300 individuals. The largest population of Indo-Chinese Tigers are found in Malaysia, where poaching has been controlled; However, all populations are threatened by Habitat fragmentation and inbreeding. The Indo-Chinese Tigers are smaller and darker than the Indian tigers fur; males have a weight of 150-190 kg, while females, of smaller size, weigh 100-130 kg.


The Malayan Tiger (P. t. jacksoni), exclusively found in the East of the Malay Peninsula, was not considered a true subspecies until the year 2004. More recent studies indicate that its wild population could be little more than 500 Tigers, figure that places him in the third most numerous Tiger subspecies, behind the Tiger of Bengal and Indochina. The Malayan Tiger is a national animal in Malaysia. The average weight calculated for males is 120 kg, while that of females is 100 kg.


Sumatran tiger.
The Sumatran tiger (p. t. sumatrae) is found only in the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is estimated that its wild population is between 400 and 500 copies, and it is mainly found in the national parks of the island. Recent DNA analyses reveal the existence of certain gene unique characteristics, indicating that the Sumatran tiger is on the boundary between the subspecies and their separation as new species different from the rest of tigers if it is not extinguished soon. For this reason, it has been suggested that they should be even more efforts for the conservation of the Sumatran tiger to the remaining subspecies. The destruction of its Habitat (which continues even in the supposedly protected national parks) is his main threat; In addition, between 1998 and 2000, 66 Tigers were killed to shooting, what constitutes approximately 20% of the total population. Among the current subspecies of Tiger, of Sumatra is smaller, with a weight of 100-140 kg in males and 75-110 kg in females. Their small size is an adaptation to the dense forests of the island of Sumatra, where he resides. February 3, 2007, a pregnant Sumatran Tigress was captured by the people in the village of Rokan Hilir in Riau Province. Some officials of the conservation of the fauna are planning the relocation of the Tigress to the Zoo of Bogor in Java.


Amur tiger.
The Amur tiger (p. t. altaica), also called Siberian Tiger, Manchurian, or northern China is located in the Amur region, in the far east of Siberia, where he is currently a species protected. The last census (2005) revealed that the wild population of Amur tiger was among the 430 and 520 copies, population than at present, remains more or less stable. It is considered the feline largest in the world (except for the liger, a hybrid between a male lion and a Tigress), the largest specimen hunted in the wild was a male weighing 384 kg and a specimen in captivity reached 465 kg; However, the average weight for males is 225 kg, and females of 127 kg.19 A copy of just six months of age can be as large as an adult Leopard. It is characterized by having a thick layer of fat (especially in winter), as well as a Griffon, paler fur than the other subspecies; as well as a smaller number of stripes.


Amoy Tiger.
The South China Tiger (p. t. amoyensis), also known as Amoy or Xiamen Tiger, is the most endangered subspecies of Tiger of all, and is facing almost imminent extinction. It is one of the smaller subspecies of Panthera tigris; males have a weight of 130-175 kg. and considerably smaller females usually weigh about 100-115 kg. The last wild South China tiger was hunted in 1994, and since then, have not achieved confirm more sightings of wild tigers. In 1977, the Chinese Government approved the law that banned the hunting of tigers in freedom, but seems to have been too late to save the subspecies. Currently there are only 59 copies, that descend from 6 captured animals, all of them currently live in Chinese zoos. Efforts for the reintroduction of these Tigers are currently used before 2008.



Extinct subspecies:

During the 20th century the other three subspecies became extinct due to hunting and the deterioration of their Habitat:

The Bali Tiger (P. t. balica) existed only in the remote island of Bali. Balinese Tigers were sought and hunted to extinction, on 27 September 1937, with an adult female hunted at Sumbar Kima, West Bali. The Bali tiger was the smallest subspecies of the Tiger; with maximum weight of 100 kg. in males and 80 in the females.

The Java Tiger (P. t. Javan) lived only in the island of Java. Probably, the subspecies is extinct since the late 1970s, as a result of hunting and habitat destruction; However, his disappearance was likely in the early 1950s (when thought that there were less than 25 copies in the wild). The last Java tiger was sighted in 1979.

The Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) was the only Tiger who lived in Western Asia, covering countries such as Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Russia and Turkey. He suffered a harsh campaign of extermination in the Tsarist Russia. The last Russian copy was killed in the current Azerbaijan in 1923, and the subspecies disappeared definitely when he hunted the last Iranian tiger in 1959. It was a bulky, nearly as large Tiger as the Bengal tiger; the males could reach the 240 kg. It was one of the two subspecies of Tiger (along with the Indian) which, in addition to the lion of the Atlas and other animals were used by the Romans to fight Gladiators.

Hybrids:

The majority of these hybrids occur with animals in captivity, however, in the wild also have been some of these peculiarities.

Liger: Is the cross between a male lion and a Tigress. They have both parents behavior and physical characteristics. However, they tend to grow much more than either of the two parents. The ligres males are sterile, but the female ligres are generally fertile.

The tigon Tigon: Is less known, and is the result of a cross between a male Tiger and a lioness. The tigones tend to be relatively small, because males weigh around 150 kg, approximately 20% smaller than a male lion of average size. Like the ligres, the tigones have physical characteristics of the behaviour of both species, and males are also sterile.


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